In addition to the seaweed and glycogen carbohydrates mentioned above, the Inuit can access many plant sources. The stomach contents of caribou contain a large quantity of partially digested lichens and plants, which the Inuit once considered a delicacy. They also harvested reindeer moss and other lichens directly. The extended daylight of the arctic summer led to a profusion of plant life, and they harvested plant parts including berries, roots and stems, as well as mushrooms. They preserved some gathered plant life to eat during winter, often by dipping it in seal fat.[71]
While it is believed that carbohydrate intake after exercise is the most effective way of replacing depleted glycogen stores,[72][73] studies have shown that, after a period of 2–4 weeks of adaptation, physical endurance (as opposed to physical intensity) is unaffected by ketosis, as long as the diet contains high amounts of fat, relative to carbohydrates.[74] Some clinicians refer to this period of keto-adaptation as the "Schwatka imperative" after Frederick Schwatka, the explorer who first identified the transition period from glucose-adaptation to keto-adaptation.[75]
Doing a 1:1 substitution would probably change the macros too much but that doesn’t mean that you have to eat dairy to eat a ketogenic diet. If you want to use the meal plan you’d have to adjust it with other sources of fat so that you match the macros. It will require a little work (I recommend using an online diary like MyFitnessPal for support) but you’ll end up with a plan that works for you and your needs

It is interesting to note that the KB are capable of producing more energy than glucose due to the changes in mitochondrial ATP production induced by KB (Kashiwaya et al., 1994; Sato et al., 1995; Veech, 2004). During fasting or KD glycaemia, though reduced, remains within physiological levels (Seyfried and Mukherjee, 2005; Paoli et al., 2011). This euglycemic response to extreme conditions comes from two main sources: glucogenic amino acids and glycerol liberated via lysis from triglycerides (Vazquez and Kazi, 1994; Veldhorst et al., 2009). Glucogenic amino acids (neoglucogenesis from amino acids) are more important during the earlier phases of KD, while the glycerol becomes fundamental as the days go by. Thus, the glucose derived from glycerol (released from triglyceride hydrolysis) rises from 16% during a KD to 60% after a few days of complete fasting (Vazquez and Kazi, 1994). According to Bortz (1972) 38% of the new glucose formed from protein and glycerol is derived from glycerol in the lean while 79% in the obese (Bortz et al., 1972). It is important to note that during physiological ketosis (fast or very low calorie ketogenic diets) ketonemia reaches maximum levels of 7–8 mmol/L with no change in blood pH, while in uncontrolled diabetic ketoacidosis blood concentration of KBs can exceed 20 mmol/L with a consequent lowering of blood pH (Robinson and Williamson, 1980; Cahill, 2006) (Table ​(Table11).
“When the body is in ketosis, it lowers the blood pH level, causing the blood to become acidic. To counter this, the body takes calcium away from the bones,” she says. “The increased acidity in the body also increases uric acid, which can lead to the formation of kidney stones.” Therefore, it goes without saying that due to the stress an extremely low-carb diet can have on the body, those with kidney damage shouldn’t try to achieve ketosis or attempt the ketogenic diet. (10)
Checking your ketone level is one way to know if you’re in ketosis. This metabolic state usually kicks in after three or four days of restricting your carbohydrate intake or going through periods of intermittent fasting. You don’t have to visit a doctor to measure your level. Pick up a ketone urine test from a nearby drug store, or use a blood sugar meter that’s capable of measuring ketones.
It sounds like you have used ground/mince beef that was too fatty and the fat has rendered out into the casserole. I tend to avoid low fat beef as we want plenty of healthy fat to keep us fuller for longer and all the benefits that come from a high fat diet, but I also avoid the highest fat beef as too much fat comes out in the cooking process for a dish such as this one.
When you’ve eaten all of the crustless spinach quiche and keto frittata recipes that you can, these keto everything bagels are another great breakfast staple. With their help, you don’t have to cut out your favorite breakfast sandwiches. You can also try a bread-less keto breakfast sandwich with chicken sausage patties as the “buns” when you’re craving a keto-approved breakfast option.
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I should note that I fully believe the key to success on a keto diet is to be prepared.  If you precook your meals, you are setting yourself up for success.  You are only choosing to do keto once a week when you prepare your food. If you have no keto food at your house and its 9 pm on a Wednesday, then you are just asking to revert back to something easy like chinese food or pizza.  However, if all you need to do is pull a premade meal out of the fridge and microwave it, you are much better off. Make sure to pick up some rugged, microwaveable containers to store your food. Now then, lets get started!
The easiest macro to calculate in the ketogenic diet is fat. Once you've got your carbs and protein set, simply fill the rest of your daily calorie needs with fat sources. If you find yourself wanting to gain a bit of weight, add approximately 500 calories, or 55 grams. If you want to lose weight, cut down on your fat intake by 200-500 calories, or 22-55 grams.
Being in optimal ketosis for a prolonged period of time (say, a month) will ensure that you experience the maximal hormonal effect from eating a low-carb diet. If this doesn’t result in noticeable weight loss, you can be certain that too many carbs are NOT part of your weight issue and not the obstacle to your weight loss. There are, in fact, other causes of obesity and being overweight. The next three tips in this series might help you.

Everyone has to find their nutritional sweet spot for producing enough ketones and staying in ketosis, but “the core principle of the diet is to keep carbohydrate intake low enough, so your body continues producing ketones at elevated levels,” says Volek. “Your body adapts to this alternative fuel and becomes very efficient at breaking down and burning fat.”
It sounds like you have used ground/mince beef that was too fatty and the fat has rendered out into the casserole. I tend to avoid low fat beef as we want plenty of healthy fat to keep us fuller for longer and all the benefits that come from a high fat diet, but I also avoid the highest fat beef as too much fat comes out in the cooking process for a dish such as this one.
Brandi currently lives in Kansas City, Missouri and is a self-taught cook and fitness enthusiast. She has focused on healthy recipe development and exercise for 5+ years after reaching a fitness plateau and struggling to lose weight and maintain body goals. Brandi’s goal is to share recipes and workouts that support a consistently healthy lifestyle.

Thank you. I had a diabetic dietician steer me wrong on this for 2 years. (Kept gaining on their diet plan, my endocrinologist kept upping my insulin so I read everything I could and Ive come to my own conclusion. Ive cut in half my insulin and so far..lost 12 pounds in one month.i feel better in 2 years since my cancer treatment killed my pancreas. Stage4 4 lung cancer survivor. Breast cancer survivor. Diabetic contender. My head is clear for the first time in a very long time.


The gut-brain link is important not only for the hormones produced by the gut, but also for the long-term body weight regulation. Studies in mice indicate that the gut microbiome influences both sides of the energy balance by contributing to nutrient absorption and regulating host genes that affect adiposity [however there are conflicting reports (Parks et al., 2013; Schele et al., 2013)]. However, it remains uncertain just how important gut microbiota are for nutrient absorption in humans. A cohort study has demonstrated that the nutrient load is a key variable that can influence the gut/fecal bacterial content over short time frames. Furthermore, the observed associations between gut microbes and nutrient absorption indicates a possible role of the human gut microbiota in the regulation of the nutrient intake and utilization (Jumpertz et al., 2011).
^ Jump up to: a b c Clemente FJ, Cardona A, Inchley CE, Peter BM, Jacobs G, Pagani L, Lawson DJ, Antão T, Vicente M, Mitt M, DeGiorgio M, Faltyskova Z, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Szpak M, Mägi R, Eriksson A, Manica A, Raghavan M, Rasmussen M, Rasmussen S, Willerslev E, Vidal-Puig A, Tyler-Smith C, Villems R, Nielsen R, Metspalu M, Malyarchuk B, Derenko M, Kivisild T (October 2014). "A Selective Sweep on a Deleterious Mutation in CPT1A in Arctic Populations". American Journal of Human Genetics. 95 (5): 584–589. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.09.016. PMC 4225582. PMID 25449608.

Wondering what fits into a keto diet — and what doesn’t? “It’s so important to know what foods you’ll be eating before you start, and how to incorporate more fats into your diet,” says Kristen Mancinelli, RD, author of The Ketogenic Diet: A Scientifically Proven Approach to Fast, Healthy Weight Loss, who is based in New York City. We asked her for some guidelines.
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